The Phenotypic Polymorphism of Saliva From Dental Caries Patients
Keywords:saliva, Caries, SDS PAGE, Zymography, ELISA, sIgA
Introduction: The tooth decay or dental caries is a disease that results in imbalance in mineralization process of the tooth, cavitation and sensitivity as well as pulp infection that leading to inflammation and eventually tooth loose. Saliva which is in direct contact with the dentine, can serve as a medium for analysis of components or factors that show the difference in normal healthy and disease conditions. Methodology: Here, a biochemical analysis of individual saliva samples from healthy control and caries patients were carried out to see the differences in protein profiles. The unstimulated saliva samples were analyzed through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D gel), zymography and secretary IgA (sIgA) antibody ELISA procedure. Results: Differences were observed in individual samples not only in polymorphic band pattern on SDS-PAGE gels but also in activity of proteases in the saliva and the concentration of sIgA antibody. Conclusion: These were the initial results obtained from the study that was further optimized and evaluated with accuracy and reported elsewhere with statistical figures.
Greabu M, Calenic B. Saliva: A diagnosis fluid for oral and general diseases. Organic Chem Curr Res 2015;4:131. doi: 10.4172/2161-0401.1000131.
Daniel Malamud D, Rodriguez-Chavez IR. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Dent Clin North Am 2011; 55(1): 159-78.
Lee YH, Wong DT. Saliva: an emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases. Am J Dent 2009; 22(4): 241-8.
Khurshid Z, Moin SF, Khan RS, Agwan MA, Alwadaani AH, Zafar MS. Human salivary protein extraction from RNAPro• SAL™, Pure• SAL™, and passive drooling method. Eur J Dentis 2017; 11(03): 385-9.
Khyani IA, Qureshi MA, Mirza T, Farooq MU. Salivary detection of human Papilloma virus 16 & 18 in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity: Is it feasible in Pakistani context of Socio-Cultural Taboos?. Pak J Med Sci 2015; 31(5): 1104-9.
Muhammad IA, Masood A Q, M Umar F, Talat M. Molecular diagnosis of oral pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma in saliva- a breakthrough in Pakistan. Int J Endorsing Health Sci Res 2014; 2(2): 108-16.
Khan ZM, Waheed H, Khurshid Z, Zafar MS, Moin SF, Alam MK. Differentially Expressed Salivary Proteins in Dental Caries Patients. BioMed Res Int 2021; 14: 2021.
Schwartz SS, Zhu WX, Sreebny LM. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human whole saliva. Arch Oral Biol 1995; 40(10): 949-58.
Banderas-Tarabay JA, Zacarı́as-D'Oleire IG, Garduño-Estrada R, Aceves-Luna E, González-Begné M. Electrophoretic analysis of whole saliva and prevalence of dental caries. A study in Mexican dental students. Arch Med Res 2002; 33(5): 499-505.
Ayad M, Van Wuyckhuyse BC, Minaguchi K, Raubertas RF, Bedi GS, Billings RJ, et al. The association of basic proline-rich peptides from human parotid gland secretions with caries experience. J Dental Res 2000; 79(4): 976-82.
Mengi R, Kaul R, Kaul V, Mengi H. Electrophoretic analysis of whole saliva and prevalence of dental caries - A study in Indian population. Int J Sci Res 2017; 6(10): 163-5.
Mertens B, Orti V, Vialaret J, Gibert P, Relaño-Ginés A, Lehmann S, et al. Assessing a multiplex-targeted proteomics approach for the clinical diagnosis of periodontitis using saliva samples. Bioanalysis 2018; 10(1): 35-45.
Molaei Z, Motahari P. Association of MMP9, MMP13 and MMP20 genes polymorphism with dental caries: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Dental J 2022; 32(3): 131-40.
Virtanen E, Yakob M, Tervahartiala T, Söder PÖ, Andersson LC, Sorsa T, et al. Salivary MMP‐13 gender differences in periodontitis: A cross‐sectional study from Sweden. Clin Exp Dental Res 2017; 3(5): 165-70.
Crosara KT, Zuanazzi D, Moffa EB, Xiao Y, Machado MA, Siqueira WL. Revealing the amylase interactome in whole saliva using proteomic approaches. BioMed Res Int 2018; 31: 2018.
Chevalier F, Hirtz C, Chay S, Cuisinier F, Sommerer N, Rossignol M, de Périère DD. Proteomic studies of saliva: A proposal for a standardized handling of clinical samples. Clin Proteomics 2007; 3(1-4): 13-21.
Gonçalves LD, Soares MR, Nogueira FC, Garcia C, Camisasca DR, Domont G, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of whole saliva from chronic periodontitis patients. J Proteomics 2010; 73(7): 1334-41.
Jafarzadeh A, Sadeghi M, Karam GA, Vazirinejad R. Salivary IgA and IgE levels in healthy subjects: Relation to age and gender. Brazilian oral Res 2010; 24(1): 21-7.
Haeri-Araghi H, Zarabadipour M, Safarzadeh-Khosroshahi S, Mirzadeh M. Evaluating the relationship between dental caries number and salivary level of IgA in adults. J Clin Exp Dentistry 2018; 10(1): e66.
da Silva Fidalgo TK, Freitas-Fernandes LB, Ammari M, Mattos CT, de Souza IP, Maia LC. The relationship between unspecific s-IgA and dental caries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dentistry 2014; 42(11): 1372-81.
Heigetyan AV, Bragin EA, Maksiukov SY, Labushkina AV, Alutina EL, Harseeva GG. The immunologic indicators in patients with caries of contact surfaces of lateral teeth. Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika 2015; 60(8): 52-4.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 BioSight
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.