Role of Serum Lipid and Apolipoprotein Ratios in Prediction of Diabetic Retinopathy
Keywords:Diabetic Retinopathy, Lipid ratios, Apolipoproteins
Aims: The objective of the study was to determine clinical utility of different ratios of serum lipid and apolipoprotein as predictive markers for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methodology: In this case control study, study participants were divided in to four groups, normal controls, diabetic controls, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Staging was done based on fundoscopy by an ophthalmologist. A fasting venous blood was assayed for Lipid profile, levels of ApoA1 and ApoB and different combination of ratios for these tests were used to assess association with DR. Results: Independently, only ApoB levels proved to be predictive of DR, but being non-specific to DR it cannot be used as independent marker. Amongst various ratios, only ratios of apolipoproteins were significantly associated with DR. Conclusion: ApoB/ApoA1 ratio is the most suited ratio for screening of DR.
Herman WH. The Global Burden of Diabetes: An Overview. Diabetes Mellitus in Developing Countries and Underserved Communities: Springer; 2017. p. 1-5.
Organization WH. Global report on diabetes: World Health Organization; 2016.
Dowler J. BMJ Best Practice: BMJ; 2017 [Available from: http: //bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/532.
Wang FH, Liang YB, Zhang F, Wang JJ, Wei WB, Tao QS, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in rural China: the Handan Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2009; 116(3): 461-7.
Xie X, Xu L, Jonas J, Wang Y. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among subjects with known diabetes in China: the Beijing Eye Study. European journal of ophthalmology 2009; 19(1): 91.
Mendoza-Herrera K, Quezada AD, Pedroza-Tobías A, Hernández-Alcaraz C, Fromow-Guerra J, Barquera S. Peer reviewed: A diabetic retinopathy screening tool for low-income adults in mexico. Preventing chronic disease 2017; 14.
Maffi P, Secchi A. The burden of diabetes: Emerging data. Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. 60: Karger Publishers 2017. p. 1-5.
Sasongko MB, Widyaputri F, Agni AN, Wardhana FS, Kotha S, Gupta P, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and blindness in Indonesian adults with type 2 diabetes. Am J Ophthalmol 2017; 181: 79-87.
Sohail M. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among type–2 diabetes patients in Pakistan–vision registry. Pak J Ophthalmol 2014; 30(4): 204-12.
Saddiq MAA, Rehman MU, Fatima M, Hussain A, Khan AA, Mahju T, et al. Diabetic retinopathy in patients presenting to the screening clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Ophthalmol Pakistan 2017; 5(04): 7-9.
Muhammad Akhtar M, Hussain M. To compare the frequency & prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type: 1 & Type: 2 at Al-shifa eye hospital, Rawalpindi. Ophthalmology 2017; 15(4): 341.
Shaikh S, Ursani TJ, Dhiloo KH, Samuel R, Talpur R, Jawed M, et al. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and related factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hyderabad and adjoining areas 2017.
Lodhi A, Panhwar F, Anwar K, Saleem R, Irfan R, Qureshi A. Diabetic Retinopathy prevalence in Urban Sindh. Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series) 2017; 49(1).
Farasat T, Sharif S, Manzoor F, Zafar M, Naz S. Prevalence of retinopathy detected by fundoscopy among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients visiting a local hospital in Lahore. Pakistan J Zool 2017; 49(1).
Zafar J, Nadeem D, Khan SA, Jawad Abbasi M, Aziz F, Saeed S. Prevalence of diabetes and its correlates in urban population of Pakistan: A Cross-sectional survey. J Pak Med Assoc 2016; 66: 922-7.
Khan AJ. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Pakistani subjects. A pilot study. J Pak Med Assoc. 1991; 41(3): 49-50.
Ishaq H, Ali M, Kazmi N, Naqvi BS, Shaikh D. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a health facility in Karachi, Pakistan. Tropical J Pharm Res 2016; 15(5): 1069-76.
Butt N, Bano F, Ghani M, Ahmed AM, Majeed N. Association of serum advanced glycation (AGEs) end products, apolipoprotein-B and zinc in severity of T2DM retinopathy. Pak J Pharm Sci 2021; 34(2): 803-8.
Prajapati S, Kujur R, Tiwari U, Ranjan K. Serum lipid levels in diabetes mellitus patients with and without diabetic retinopathy: A prospective study. Int J Curr Res Med Sci 2017; 3(8): 78-88.
Du M, Martin A, Hays F, Johnson J, Farjo RA, Farjo KM. Serum retinol-binding protein-induced endothelial inflammation is mediated through the activation of toll-like receptor 4. Molecular vision 2017; 23: 185.
Zhang XZ, Tu WJ, Wang H, Zhao Q, Liu Q, Sun L, et al. Circulating serum fatty acid binding protein 4 levels predict the development of the diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 2018.
Mukherjee B, Shankar S, Ahmed R, Singh K, Bhatia K. Association of glycated haemoglobin and serum apolipoproteins with diabetic retinopathy: An Indian overview. J Clin Diagnos Res 2017; 11(9): BC19.
Mahfouz MH, Assiri AM, Mukhtar MH. Assessment of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (ngal) and retinol-binding protein 4 (rbp4) in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Biomarker Insights 2016; 11: 31.
Gong Q, Xie Jn, Liu Y, Li Y, Su G. Differentially expressed micrornas in the development of early diabetic retinopathy. J Diabet Res 2017; 2017.
Ma J, Wang J, Liu Y, Wang C, Duan D, Lu N, et al. Comparisons of serum miRNA expression profiles in patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinics 2017; 72(2): 111-5.
Joglekar MV, Januszewski AS, Jenkins AJ, Hardikar AA. Circulating microRNA biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes 2016; 65(1): 22-4.
Mumtaz SN, Fahim MF, Arslan M, Shaikh SA, Kazi U, Memon MS. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Pakistan; A systematic review. Pak J Med Sci 2018; 34(2): 493-500.
Ankit BS, Mathur G, Agrawal RP, Mathur KC. Stronger relationship of serum apolipoprotein A-1 and B with diabetic retinopathy than traditional lipids. Ind J Endocrinol Metabol 2017; 21(1): 102-5.
Zhang Q, Hu J, Hu Y, Ding Y, Zhu J, Zhuang C. Relationship between serum apolipoproteins levels and retinopathy risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol 2018; 55(7): 681-9.
Ajith V, Gilsa E, Sudha V, Pushpalatha M, Geetha D, Andrews M. Serum lipids and apolipoproteins in diabetic retinopathy: A case control study. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2015; 14(2): 70-3.
Hu A, Luo Y, Li T, Guo X, Ding X, Zhu X, et al. Low serum apolipoprotein A1/B ratio is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2012; 250(7): 957-62.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 BioSight
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.