Correlation of Middle Upper Arm Circumference With Other Anthropometric Indictors and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Young Adults of Urban Areas of Hyderabad, Pakistan
Keywords:Middle Upper Arm Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease, Young Adults
Introduction: Middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) is used to assess nutritional status particularly under nutrition. Recently, the use of MUAC has been suggested as a novel anthropometric marker to assess the condition of obesity among the children, adolescents, and young adults. We, therefore, setup / study to evaluate the correlation of MUAC for the assessment of various CVD risk factors. Methodology: The study was carried out from April 2021 to March 2022. Total 366 participants were randomly selected, out of which 190 were male participants and 176 were female participants. The data was collected using interview based questionnaire; middle upper arm circumference was measures using a non stretchable measuring tape. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS ver 23. Results: The mean age of participants was 24.04±4.04, the mean values of WC, WHR, SBP, DBP, and LDL were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in males, the mean values of HDL were significantly higher in females(p< 0.05). Non-significant difference in the mean values of BMI, FBG, Cholesterol and Triglycerides (P> 0.05) were observed between male and female participants. MUAC showed strong positive correlation with BMI, WC and WHR (P<.001). Except HDL all other CVD risk factors showed significant positive correlation with MUAC (P<.001), however, MUAC showed a significantly negative correlation with HDL( r = -.370, P<.001) in males, no correlation of MUAC with HDL ( r = -.028, P<.001) was observed in females. Conclusion: Except HDL significant correlation was observed between MUAC and various CVD risk factors.
Mensah, G.A., G.A. Roth, and V. Fuster, The global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors: 2020 and beyond. 2019, American College of Cardiology Foundation Washington, DC. p. 2529-2532.
Roth, G.A., G.A. Mensah, and V. Fuster, The global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risks: a compass for global action. 2020, American College of Cardiology Foundation Washington DC. p. 2980-2981.
Saglietto, A., et al., Cardiovascular disease burden: Italian and global perspectives. Minerva Cardiology and Angiology, 2021.
Nishtar, S., Prevention of coronary heart disease in south Asia. The Lancet, 2002. 360(9338): p. 1015-1018.
Roth, G.A., et al., Global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, 1990–2019: update from the GBD 2019 study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2020. 76(25): p. 2982-3021.
Liaquat, A. and Q. Javed, Current trends of cardiovascular risk determinants in Pakistan. Cureus, 2018. 10(10).
Memon, M.A., Z. Laghari, and J. Warsi, Association of Cigarette Smoking with Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity as Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Young Adults. Journal of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, 2021. 20(5): p. 341-344.
Mohammadnezhad, M., et al., Common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among pacific countries. World Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 2016. 6(11): p. 153.
Flegal, K.M., et al., Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 2009. 89(2): p. 500-508.
De Koning, L., et al., Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. European heart journal, 2007. 28(7): p. 850-856.
Myint, P.K., et al., Body fat percentage, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of mortality and cardiovascular disease. Heart, 2014. 100(20): p. 1613-1619.
Kok, P., J. Seidell, and A. Meinders, The value and limitations of the body mass index (BMI) in the assessment of the health risks of overweight and obesity. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 2004. 148(48): p. 2379-2382.
Jaiswal, M., R. Bansal, and A. Agarwal, Role of mid-upper arm circumference for determining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 2017. 11(8): p. SC05.
Laghari, Z.A., et al., Malnutrition among children under five years in district Sanghar, Sindh, Pakistan. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences, 2015. 13(1).
Fakier, A., G. Petro, and S. Fawcus, Mid-upper arm circumference: A surrogate for body mass index in pregnant women. South African Medical Journal, 2017. 107(7): p. 606-610.
Zhu, Y., et al., Mid-upper arm circumference as a simple tool for identifying central obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. PloS one, 2020. 15(5): p. e0231308.
Hou, Y., et al., Association between mid-upper arm circumference and cardiometabolic risk in Chinese population: a cross-sectional study. BMJ open, 2019. 9(9): p. e028904.
Balouch, F.G., et al., Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in urban and rural areas of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. 2022. 3(1): p. 21-27.
Lillie, M., et al., Nutritional status among young adolescents attending primary school in Tanzania: contributions of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for adolescent assessment. BMC public health, 2019. 19(1): p. 1-12.
Kumar, P., et al., Screening maternal acute malnutrition using adult mid-upper arm circumference in resource-poor settings. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 2018. 43(2): p. 132-134.
Shi, J., et al., Large mid-upper arm circumference is associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly individuals: a community-based study. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 2020. 20(1): p. 1-8.
Dereje, R., et al., Mid upper arm circumference as screening tool of overweight or obesity among adult employees of Mizan Tepi University, Southwest Ethiopia. Heliyon, 2022. 8(10): p. e10793.
Asif, M., M. Aslam, and S. Altaf, Mid-upper-arm circumference as a screening measure for identifying children with elevated body mass index: a study for Pakistan. Korean journal of pediatrics, 2018. 61(1): p. 6.
Fatchurohmah, W., et al., Mid-Upper Arm Circumference vs Body Mass Index in Association with Blood Pressure in Young Men: A Cross-Sectional Study. Jurnal Profesi Medika: Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan, 2021. 15(2).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 BioSight
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.