Seasonal And Regional Effects of Air Quality Index on Hematological Indices of Dogs Under Local Environmental Conditions In Pakistan

Authors

  • Muhammad Sohaib Asghar Department of Physiology, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zia ur Rehman Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Hamza Shafiq Allama Iqbal Medical College, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore
  • Faisal Khalique Lahore Medical & Dental College, Tulspura, Canal Rd, North, Lahore
  • Zia Ullah Mughal Department of Veterinary Surgery and Pet Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46568/bios.v3i1.62

Keywords:

Air pollution, Hematological indices, Seasonal variations, Dogs

Abstract

Air pollution is found to have significant association with living health all over global world. Environment Protection Department of Punjab, Pakistan provides the monthly air quality index (AQI) data on air pollution with concentrated particulates like PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2 and O3. Air particulates concentrations may vary of season, regional geography and climate. We performed blood sampling of 45 dogs from different breeds (Labrador retrievers, German shepherds and Pit bulls) from three different areas categorized on basis of AQI as less polluted (Gulberg), polluted (Town Hall) and highly polluted (Shadman) in winter and spring seasons. Data were analysed using paired sample t-tests for seasonal study and independent sample t-tests for area and breed study by SPSS (P < 0.05 ascertained as significant). Seasonal study resulted that less polluted area had no significant effects on hematological indices in any three breeds of dogs in both seasons. Polluted area was presented with increased significant effects on values of monocytes in Labrador retrievers, Hct and MCHC in German shepherds while decreased significant effects on MCH value in Pit bulls in winter season as compared to spring season. Highly polluted area had significant effects with decreasing WBC counts only in German shepherds in winter season than spring season. This study concludes that polluted and highly polluted areas in winter season with worst AQI affects blood indices more than spring season in dogs.

References

Darçın M. Association between air quality and quality of life. Environ Sci and Pollut Res. 2014; 21(3): 1954-9.

Maria. Why Pakistan needs to deal with air pollution on an emergency footing. Dawn Prism. 2019 20 Dec 2019.

Anjum MS, Ali SM, Subhani MA, Anwar MN, Nizami A-S, Ashraf U, et al. An emerged challenge of air pollution and ever-increasing particulate matter in Pakistan; a critical review. J Hazard Mater. 2020: 123943.

Ghio AJ, Hall A, Bassett MA, Cascio WE, Devlin RB. Exposure to concentrated ambient air particles alters hematologic indices in humans. Inhal toxicol. 2003; 15(14): 1465-78.

Liao X, Tu H, Maddock JE, Fan S, Lan G, Wu Y, et al. Residents’ perception of air quality, pollution sources, and air pollution control in Nanchang, China. Atmos Pollut Res. 2015; 6(5): 835-41.

Skuland TS, Refsnes M, Magnusson P, Oczkowski M, Gromadzka-Ostrowska J, Kruszewski M, et al. Proinflammatory effects of diesel exhaust particles from moderate blend concentrations of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel in BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells—The FuelHealth project. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017; 52: 138-42.

Altinok-Yipel F, Yipel M, Altuğ N, Özdemir N. Blood concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) and correlation with biochemical and hematological parameters in dogs from thrace region, Turkey. Chemosphere. 2022: 133649.

Monks PS, Granier C, Fuzzi S, Stohl A, Williams ML, Akimoto H, et al. Atmospheric composition change–global and regional air quality. Atmos Environ. 2009; 43(33): 5268-350.

Sejian V. Climate change: impact on production and reproduction, adaptation mechanisms and mitigation strategies in small ruminants: a review. Indian J Small Ruminants (The). 2013; 19(1): 1-21.

ul-Haq Z, Tariq S, Ali M, Mahmood K, Rana AD. Sulphur dioxide loadings over megacity Lahore (Pakistan) and adjoining region of Indo-Gangetic Basin. Int J Remote Sens. 2016; 37(13): 3021-41.

Ahlawat P. Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on hematological parameters in albino rats. J Sci Eng Res. 2016. 2016(2016).

Frampton MW, Boscia J, Roberts Jr NJ, Azadniv M, Torres A, Cox C, et al. Nitrogen dioxide exposure: effects on airway and blood cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell- Mole Physiol. 2002.

Kaczorowski DJ, Zuckerbraun BS. Carbon monoxide: medicinal chemistry and biological effects. Curr Medicinal Chem. 2007; 14(25): 2720-5.

Losacco C, Perillo A. Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory impact on humans and animals. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018; 25(34): 33901-10.

Lin CH, Lo PY, Wu HD, Chang C, Wang LC. Association between indoor air pollution and respiratory disease in companion dogs and cats. J Vet intern Med. 2018; 32(3): 1259-67.

Wellenius GA, Coull BA, Godleski JJ, Koutrakis P, Okabe K, Savage ST, et al. Inhalation of concentrated ambient air particles exacerbates myocardial ischemia in conscious dogs. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111(4): 402-8.

Das P, Chatterjee P. Assessment of hematological profiles of adult male athletes from two different air pollutant zones of West Bengal, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015; 22(1): 343-9.

Li M, Nabi G, Sun Y, Wang Y, Wang L, Jiang C, et al. The effect of air pollution on immunological, antioxidative and hematological parameters, and body condition of Eurasian tree sparrows. Ecotoxico Enviro Saf. 2021; 208: 111755.

Jacob DJ, Winner DA. Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmos Environ. 2009; 43(1): 51-63.

Harvey JW. Atlas of veterinary hematology: Elsevier; 2001.

Yamamoto S, Phalkey R, Malik A. A systematic review of air pollution as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in South Asia: Limited evidence from India and Pakistan. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014; 217(2-3): 133-44.

Fauzie AK, Venkataramana G. Exposure to organic and inorganic traffic-related air pollutants alters haematological and biochemical indices in albino mice Mus musculus. Int J Environ Health Res. 2020; 30(2): 117-33.

Gorriz A, Llacuna S, Riera M, Nadal J. Effects of air pollution on hematological and plasma parameters in Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1996; 31(1): 153-8.

Brüske I, Hampel R, Socher MM, Rückerl R, Schneider A, Heinrich J, et al. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Inhal Toxicol. 2010; 22(3): 245-52.

Poursafa P, Kelishadi R, Amini A, Amini A, Amin MM, Lahijanzadeh M, et al. Association of air pollution and hematologic parameters in children and adolescents. J De Ped. 2011; 87(4).

Clarke RW, Coull B, Reinisch U, Catalano P, Killingsworth CR, Koutrakis P, et al. Inhaled concentrated ambient particles are associated with hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage changes in canines. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108(12): 1179-87.

Krishnan RM, Sullivan JH, Carlsten C, Wilkerson H-W, Beyer RP, Bammler T, et al. A randomized cross-over study of inhalation of diesel exhaust, hematological indices, and endothelial markers in humans. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013; 10(1): 7.

Gondalia R, Holliday KM, Baldassari A, Justice AE, Stewart JD, Liao D, et al. Leukocyte Traits and Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in the Women’s Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Environ Health Perspect 2020; 128(1): 017004.

Das P, Chatterjee P. Aerobic capacity and hematological response to exercise: A study on school-going regularly exercising boys in two different air pollution zones. J Exerc Sci Fit. 2015; 13(2): 99-103.

Montrose L, Noonan CW, Cho YH, Lee J, Harley J, O'Hara T, et al. Evaluating the effect of ambient particulate pollution on DNA methylation in Alaskan sled dogs: potential applications for a sentinel model of human health. Sci Total Environ. 2015; 512: 489-94.

Gondalia R, Holliday KM, Baldassari A, Justice AE, Stewart JD, Liao D, et al. Leukocyte Traits and Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution in the Women's Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2020; 128(1): 17004-.

Glencross DA, Ho T-R, Camina N, Hawrylowicz CM, Pfeffer PE. Air pollution and its effects on the immune system. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020; 151: 56-68.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Zia ur Rehman, Hamza Shafiq, Faisal Khalique, & Zia Ullah Mughal. (2022). Seasonal And Regional Effects of Air Quality Index on Hematological Indices of Dogs Under Local Environmental Conditions In Pakistan. BioSight, 3(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.46568/bios.v3i1.62

Issue

Section

Original Article